In big cities such as Moscow and St.Petersburg it is very convenient to use metro (underground train system). Metro station are identified with the letter "M" (do not mix up with McDonalds). In order to get to the metro you should buy a ticket. In Moscow it is a card (from 1 trip up to unlimited trips), in St. Petersburg you get a token or a card. You can buy tokens or cards at any metro station. After going through a validator you find yourself on the escalator. Keep to the right side, as some people are going down the escalator. Once you are inside you can travel to any station without leaving metro and extra payments. In St.Petersburg themetro is very deep, especially in downtown.
All signs in metro are in Cyrillic, so before going somewhere by metro, study the metro map as it may help to choose a more convenient route. Trains come very often (every 2-3 minutes in rash hours). The lines of metro have their own colour, so it helps to move around and find the way. The metro opens at around 6 a.m. Most sations in Moscow close at 1 a.m., in St.Petersburg at 12 a.m.
Buses, Trolley-buses, Trams
One can still see a lot of buses, trolley-buses and trams in big towns of Russia. The average price of the ticket is 10-20 rubles. In most cases you can purchase a ticket from the conductor. In Moscow some buses are equipped with validators, so you should get a ticket at the bus stop.
Today there are a lot of so called "marshrutkas" (mini-vans going along the same route with public transport). Most of them are owned by private companies. They are often more expensive than public transport, but faster. The price depends on the distance of the ride and on the route.
Trains are the most popular means of transportation as well as a convenient and fascinating way of travelling in Russia. First, trains are generally safer than planes. Train Second, they provide a chance to enjoy landscape. Third, overnight train saves money on a hotel and takes you to the needed destination.