Climate zones in Russia change from cold arctic in the north of Siberia to subtropical in the south, around Sochi.
The sub-tropical area is quite small and this is the reason why millions of Russians travel to other countries looking for sun and warm sea.
The climate of the northern part of European Russia is moderate continental and it is influenced by several factors. First the western wind rose brings cyclones from Europe together with precipitations and relatively warm weather. Secondly cold air from the Arctic Ocean and from Siberia has a great effect upon the climate there. In Murmansk region there is Gulf Stream influence. Maybe due to global warming (which influence upon the climate is controversial), in recent years the winters have been relativley warm with much percipitation (sometimes rain).
The climate of the central part is mostly continental. In the south of Russia the climate is sub-tropical, including the city of Sochi on the shores of the Black Sea. In the area of Ural Mountains and Siberia the climate is continental with cold winters and relatively warm summers. In the northern part of Siberia the climate is arctic and sub-arctic. The coldest place on the Earth is located in Yakutia in the place called Oymyakon. The lowest temperature was stated in 1926 and came to -71,2 degrees of Centigrade.
Average temperatures in December: